“A Jewish Philatelist’s Voyage on the Seven Seas”

(16 September 2011)

Peter Keeda

University of Sydney, Australia



It was a triangulated genesis. In a second-hand bookstore I found They Took to the Sea by Samuel Tokolowsky and I was fascinated as to why we hear so little about Jews involvement in the sea. As it happened I was working in Israel in marketing of bulk products and so I was involved in shipping – ‘Jewish shipping’ – on a daily basis. The hypotenuse of the idea  came from my hobby of collecting stamps which had become so large and unwieldy that I decided that I had to do something about it and what better way, than to specialize. This I soon learnt is called ‘thematic collecting’ and what better theme could I choose than to join three of my interests: Jewish history, Jewish involvement in commerce and migration, and philately? Over the last thirty-five years this Collection has grown into a seven volume Collection which I have named “A Jewish Philatelist’s Voyage on the Seven Seas”. As of July 2011 the Collection contains about 550 items which fill seven albums totalling 550 pages. The Collection has been fully indexed.

Eventually I hope to scan the complete Collection and make it available on-line. This endeavour may take some time as a complete revision of the texts is deemed necessary to ensure that this is a unique and original piece of research.

Attached is a bibliography of most of the references used, although in the early days of the Collection references were not accurately recorded and so it is possible that there are some omissions. The Harvard referencing style has been used in the bibliography.

In mid 2010, while searching the Internet for more items to add to my Collection I came across Professor David Blumenthal’s course, ‘Using Stamps to Explore Religion and Culture’ at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia. I also discovered a website he created to make public the research on Israeli and topical Judaica done at Emory (http://www.js.emory.edu/BLUMENTHAL/Philatlely.html). By this time I was situated in Sydney, Australia, however, through the miracle of the Internet the barrier of fifteen thousand kilometres soon dissolved.  I was (am) studying towards a Masters degree in Jewish Studies at the University of Sydney and there seemed to be a good fit. I contacted Professor Blumenthal who agreed to supervise my work and, Professor Suzanne Rutland, my professor at the University of Sydney agreed that it would be a worthwhile research topic. By coincidence the two professors were at that time both visiting Jerusalem and soon made contact by way of a local phone call and we all agreed that I would move forward. Such serendipity augured a successful outcome.

Over the next nine months I slowly prepared a Stampchart, following the Emory model, which would fulfil the requirements of Professor Blumenthal’s course. However, as with any good piece of research I soon came upon several hurdles: (1) Up to this point in time the objects of other Stampcharts were stamps but the items of my Collection are a mixture of stamps, covers, postcards and other philatelic ephemera. Professor Blumenthal agreed that this would not change the basic nature of the project and agreed that I should proceed.  (2) All other Stampcharts created at Emory University were based upon the Sol Singer Collection of Philatelic Judaica and so the exhibits of the charts were available to all who could access this amazing Collection. My Collection, however, is situated in Sydney, Australia, so how could staff and students elsewhere (notably in Atlanta, Georgia) easily identify the items of my Collection? By scanning the items they would have visual access to them and by embedding the scans in the Stampchart they would be readily available to anyone who wished to peruse my Stampchart. Scanning and embedding the items was time consuming but not difficult. The next hurdle came a bit later (see ‘Using the Stampchart’ below).

Placing the information into a Stampchart necessitated categorizing all the items. Two major Categories were chosen, ‘theme’ and ‘function’ and these were further broken down to a third Category, ‘activity’. Each of these was sub-divided in into sub-categories, ranging from two to twelve sub-categories. As the work progressed, these categories were refined and the final structure is as follows:

A. Theme

Š            Ancient Israeli History

Š            Far-Flung Places

Š            Israeli Towns and Sites on the Sea

Š            Jewish Heroes

Š            Jewish Shipowners and Managers

Š            Modern Israeli History

Š            Other Jewish History

B. Function                                 C. Activity

Š           Biblical                       – persona, coastal

Š           Civilian                       – ancient,  archaeology, artists, cruise,

                                         hero, milestones, scientific, sport,

                                         training,  settlement

Š           Commercial              -- coastal, fishing, government ,  industry,

                                         pirates. postal, services, shipping lines,

                                         tourism, trading

Š           Confinement                         – British, Australian

Š           Emigration                 – Aliyah, Aliyah Bet, to Americas

Š           Exploratory                 – explorers, navigation

Š           Naval                          – arms, invaders, operations, heroes,

                                    submarine, training


Using the Stampchart

The Stampchart for “A Jewish Philatelist’s Voyage on the Seven Seas” is composed of twenty (20) columns, A-T, as follows:

Columns A-G give the basic reference information as follows:

• Column A – the Item number has no significance other to easily identify a particular item.

• Columns B and C give: Country of issue and Date of issue

• Columns D,E, F – give the IPC, Scott, and Stanley Gibbons catalogue numbers but only if the object of entry is a stamp (or FDC). If  there is an incidental stamp such as on a cover or postcard, but the object is the cover and not the stamp, the relevant stamp catalogue number is given in column J. For some recent Israeli issues the catalogue number was not yet available and so the IPC numbers have been marked “xxxx”/

• Column G – the Scan of an object can be accessed by clicking on top right hand corner of cell. This is where MAC users may have some difficulty.

Columns H-N give the content information as follows:

• Columns H and I give: the Title and the Description as contained in the philatelic material available for the stamp

• Columns J and K give: Additional information and Internet links.

            • Column L gives my first Category: Theme

            • Column M gives my second Category: Function

            • Column N gives my third Category: Activity


Columns O-Q give the philatelic data: Format, Denomination, and Colour


Columns R-T give the locator data in my Collection, “JPVSS” = A Jewish Philatelist’s Voyage on the Seven Seas” which is the seven volumes of the author’s philatelic Collection relating to Jews and the Sea.


This chart was prepared using MSExcel 2007. The incompatibility of MSExcel 2007for MAC users only came to light after the first draft of the stampchart was completed and submitted. MAC-users, therefore, may have difficulties in manipulating the jpg scans that are imbedded in the chart (column G – see above). This is the last ‘barrier’ that I mentioned above, and to date I have not been able to find a solution. So, I added a folder of pdf scans which can be accessed outside of the stampchart. Readers interested in seeing the pdf scans should contact me at keedad@gmail.com or Professor Blumenthal at reldrb@emory.edu. For this inconvenience, I apologise and welcome suggestions as to how to overcome this anomaly.


Further notes: Spelling used is Australian English spelling. Ships’ names are italicised. All columns in the Stampchart have filter tabs added in line 2. For those using MSExcel, this will enable easy filtering (see http://office.microsoft.com/en-au/excel-help/filter-data-in-a-range-or-table-HP010073941.aspx). Similarly, for MSExcel users, all columns can be sorted. To do so, first exclude merged row containing item 125. As an example, the second tab of Stampchart has been sorted according to country (column B).


A Few of My Favourite Items

Item #125, Dov Hoz – envelope from Aliyah Bet ship with ship’s postmark; most

            unusual and quite rare; the envelope contains a short letter written in Yiddish.

Items #295-301, Steinbach envelopes – a series of envelopes sent by Markus

Steinbach from various destinations  to Morris Steinbach in New York; by

tracing the postmarks and postal addresses I have surmised that Markus fled

Austria at the outbreak of WWII, made his way to Shanghai where he was in a

 refugee camp, managed to get to Israel in 1949 and then went back to

 Austria in 1951. I have not been able to verify this information nor trace the

 Steinbach family.

item #198, Mauritius – an envelope posted June 1941 from the British internment

            camp in Mauritius.

item #88, Civitavecchia  a card relating to the Jewish maritime training school in

 Italy prior to WWII.

item #238, Cherbourg – a card relating to the amazing feat of the Israelis ‘smuggling’

 five gun boats out of France.

item #237, Dakar – rare souvenir sheet commemorating the tragic loss of the

 submarine Dakar; indicative of the high price of Israel’s security.

item #44, Ballin – rare ‘essay’ of stamp design to commemorate the Jewish shipping

 magnate Albert Ballin.

item #170, Jaffa – hand painted postcard from 1902.


A Final Word

I am well aware that I have not covered all possibilities of ‘Jews and the Sea’ in this Collection and I welcome further information and philatelic items (by way of swap or sale) that I could include.

Peter Keeda





Books and articles

Arbell, Mordechai (2002) The Jewish nation of the Caribbean. The Spanish-Portuguese Jewish settlements in the Caribbean and the Guianas, Jerusalem: Gefen Publishing House.

 Avigad, Nahman (1982) ‘A Hebrew seal depicting a sailing ship’, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 246, Spring, pp. 59-62.

Azaryahu, Maoz (2008) ‘The formation of the “Hebrew sea” in pre-state Israel’, The Journal of Modern Jewish Studies, vol. 7, issue 3, pp. 251-267.

Bernardini, Paolo and Fiering, Norman (eds.) (2001) Expansion of Europe to the west 1450 to 1800, New York: Berghahn Books.

Bernstein, Arnold (2001) Ein Jüdischer Reeder, Hamburg: Convent Verlag.

Cesarani, David (2002) Port Jews. Jewish communities in cosmopolitan maritime trading centres, 1550-1950, Portland, Oregon: Frank Cass.

Eisenberg, Ronald L. (2002) The Jewish world in stamps, Rockville, Maryland: Schreiber Publishing.

Epstein, Doris Strub (2006) ‘Little known fact: Venezuela opened its doors to Jewish refugees in World War II’, The Jewish Tribune, 9 November, p.7.

Eriksen Erik Olaf (1989) Holy land explorers, Jerusalem: Franciscan Printing Press.

Finch, Vernon E. W. (1988) The red star line and international mercantile marine company, Uitgeverij de Branding N.V., Antwerpen, pp. 130-132.

Fischel, Henry A. (1961) ‘The philatelic portrait of the modern Jew’, Jewish Social Studies, vol. 23, no. 3, July, pp.187-208.

Fishkoff, Sue (1995) ’Waiting Out the War’, The Jerusalem Post, April 28, pp 8-9.

Flinder, Alexander (1985) Secrets of the bible seas. An underwater archeologist in the holy land, London: Severn House Publishers.

Halperin, Yermiyahu (1982) The Renaissance of Jewish maritime activity (in Hebrew), Tel Aviv: Hadar.

Hayam, Zeev (1972) Ships relate. The history of Israeli shipping. (in Hebrew) Tel Aviv: Achiassaf Publishers.

Herbert, Gilbert (2008) A View of the Sea – Jews and the Maritime Tradition in Jewish Topographies, pp. 182-199, Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing.

Herbert, Gilbert (2006) Symbols of a new land. Architects and the design of the passenger ships of Zim, A publication of the Architectural Heritage Research Centre, Technion: Israel Institute of Technology.

Kashtan, Nadav (2001) Seafaring and the Jews, Portland, Oregon: Frank Cass.

Kayserling, Meyer (2002) Christopher Columbus and the participation of the Jews in the Spanish and Portuguese discoveries, Albuquerque: Hubert Allen and Associates.

Keeda, Peter (2010) Jewish shipowners in nineteenth century Australia, unpublished manuscript.

Kritzler, Edward (2008) Jewish pirates of the Caribbean, New York: Doubleday.


Laqueur, Walter (2001) Generation Exodus: The Fate of Young Jewish Refugees from Nazi Germany, Hanover: Brandeis University Press.

        Levi, John S. (2006) These are the names. Jewish lives in Australia, 1788-1850, Melbourne: The Miegunyah Press.

Levi, John S. and Bergman, G. F. J. (2002) Australian Genesis. Jewish convicts and settlers 1788-1860, Victoria: Melbourne University Press.

Naor, Mordechai (1991) The illegal immigration 1934-1948, Israel: Department of Defence.

Nobbs, Raymond (ed.) (1988) Norfolk Island and its first settlement, Erskinville, NSW, Australia: Star Printery.

Norfolk Island Postal Service (2008) A Jewish resting place in Norfolk Island, Norfolk Island: Norfolk Island Philatelic Bureau.

Patai, Raphael (1998) The children of Noah, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Pitot, Genevieve (1998) The Mauritian shekel, Port Louis, Mauritius: Editions VIZAVI.

Pitt, Alan B. (ed) (2008) Stamps of Australia, 11th edition, Sydney: Rennicks Publications.

Ran, Daniela (2000) ‘The contribution of Jewish-German immigrants to maritime development in Israel’, Mediterranean Historical Review, vol. 15, issue 1, pp. 94-101.

Ran, Nachman (1987) Journeys to the promised land, New York: Portland House.

Roman, Yadin (2001) ‘The forgotten Jews of Cyprus’, Eretz Magazine, July-August, pp. 28-36.

Rutland, Suzanne (2002) ‘Postwar Jewish “boat people” and parallels with the Tampa incident’, Australian Journal of Jewish Studies, vol. XVI, pp 159-176.

Sakaida, Henry (2004) Heroes of the Soviet Union 1941-45, Oxford: Osprey Publishing.

Selinger, George and Duck, Nehama (eds.) (1995) All ways Zim anniversary album, Haifa: Kinneret Publishing House.

Shapiro, Gershon (1988) Under fire. The stories of Jewish heroes of the Soviet Union, Jerusalem: Yad Vashem.

Sobel, Samuel (1985) Jewish sea stories, New York: Jonathan David Publishers.

Stanley Gibbons Publications Ltd. (2001) Stanley Gibbons simplified catalogue stamps of the world, (66th) Edition, vols.1,2,3, Ringwood Hampshire: Stanley Gibbons Ltd..

Stewart, Ninian (2002) The Royal Navy and the Palestine patrol, Portland, Oregon: Frank Cass.

Straub, Eberhard (2002) Albert Ballin. Der Reeder des Kaisers, Berlin:Berliner Taschenbuchverlag.

Tolkowsky, Samuel (1964) They took to the sea, New York: Thomas Yoseloff Publisher.

Travers, W. (1990) Arrival of HMT Dunera. 1940-1990. 50th Anniversary reunion, Rose Bay, Sydney: Hay-Tatura Association Incorporated.

Tsachor, Yacov (ed.) (2008) Israel postage stamps, Jerusalem: Keter Publishing House Ltd..

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (no date) Voyage of the St. Louis Washington: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.

Wachsman, Shelley (1995) The Sea of Galilee boat, New York: Plenum Press.

Wainstain, Claude (2007) Judeopostale: Histoires de Juifs dans les timbres, les lettres, le courier, France: Biro.


Zandberg, Esther (2001) ‘Israel’s Dreamboat Sails into the Sunset’, Ha’aretz October 12, p. 6.

Zim, Department for Press & Public Relations (no date) Models of ships and boats from ancient times (in Hebrew), Haifa: Bing-Lineal.

Electronic references

Adar, Yael (2002) Ram of Atlit, available  at: http://www.gemsinisrael.com/e_article000001255.htm, accessed 16 December 2010.

Adler, Joseph (1998) Christopher Columbus’ Voyage of Discovery: Jewish and New Christian Elements, Midstream 43:25, November, available at: http://www.saudades.org/ccolumbusvoyage.html, accessed 15 September 2008.

Aizenberg, Rabbi Isidore and Flug, Arthur (2007) Ships to Nowhere, available at:  at: http://www.chgs.umn.edu/assets/pdf/part1.pdf, accessed 4 January 2011.

Arbell, Mordechai (2004) The world's other Jewish president, available at: 

http://jinuj.net/articulos_ver.php?id=550, accessed 20 January 2008.

Bard, Mitchell G. (2008) Suez war of 1956, available at:  http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/Suez_War.html, accessed 20 January 2011.

Becker, Mike (2007) History of the Jews in Suriname, available at: http://www.angelfire.com/mb2/jodensavanne/timeline.htm, accessed 20 January 2008.

Benmayor, Yakov (2011) The Jews of Thessaloniki, available  at: http://www.jmth.gr/web/thejews/pages/pages/history/pages/his1.htm, accessed 21 January 2011.

Bennet, Ralph G. (2003) History of the Jews of the Caribbean, available at:  http://www.sefarad.org/publication/lm/011/jewcar.html,  accessed 5 October 2008.

Ben-tzur, Yehuda and Ben-tzur Tzvi (2008) The Palyam: From Aliyah Bet to the Core of the Israeli Navy”, available at: http://www.palyam.org/English/Palyam_overview_en, accessed 3 January 2008.

Blank, Wayne (2006) Camels, available at:   http://www.keyway.ca/htm2000/20000902.htm, accessed 19 January 2011.

Braker, Yair (2008) This is the Way it Was, available at:    http://www.palyam.org/English/IS/Braker_Yair, accessed 3 January, 2008.

Brody, Seymour (2008) Jewish Generals and Admirals in America's Military, available at: http://www.fau.edu/library/bro7toc.htm, accessed 25 December 2008.

Brody, Seymour (2006) Rabbi Alexander Goode: Chaplain/Hero of World War II, available at: http://www.fau.edu/library/br099.htm, accessed 31 December 2010.

Dansky Miriam (2000) Cyprus 1946, available at:  http://www.innernet.org.il/printArticle.php?id=197, accessed 21 November 2008.

Dotan Uri (2008) INS Dakar, available at: http://www.submarines.dotan.net/dakar/, accessed 30 October 2008.

Fitleberg, Gary (2005) Gaza’s History and the Jews, available at:  http://www.think-israel.org/fitleberg.gazahistory.html , accessed 30 December 2010.

GoĖi, Uki (2002) Argentine Jews, available at:  http://histclo.com/act/rel/faith/jew/dis/jd-arg.html, accessed 15 December 2010.

Goossens, Reuben (2008) Zim Israel Navigation Company, available at:  http://www.ssmaritime.com/ZIM.htm, accessed 30 October 2008.

Gutterman, Dov (2007) Bat Yam, available at:  http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/il-btyam.html, accessed 18 December 2010.

Harpuder, Ralph (2006) The Ships that Brought Us to Shanghai, available at:  

http://www.rickshaw.org/ships_that_brought_us.htm, accessed 11 September 2008.

Isseroff, Ami (2005) Aliyah Bet Definition, available at: http://www.zionism-israel.com/dic/Aliya_Bet.htm, accessed 12 December 2010.

Jewish Magazine (2006) Recife, available at: http://www.jewishmag.com/78mag/usahistory1/usahistory1.htm, accessed 30 December 2008.

Jewish Virtual Library (2006) Mauritius, available at: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/Mauritius.html, accessed 12 May 2011.

Jordan, Allen E. (2006) Humble beginnings: many of today's top cruise lines grew from hardscrabble roots, available at: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FCP/is_/ai_n15989156, accessed 31 October 2008.

Kahn Jacques, Kayserling Meyer and Singer Isadore (2010) Pereire, http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=187&letter=P, accessed 22 December 2010. 

King, Jeff (2004) Bound for Nowhere, available at: http://www.narrow-gate.net/jeffking/archives/002665.html, accessed 22 November 2008.

Kurinsky, Samuel (2005) Jewish Traders of the Diaspora, available at:  http://www.hebrewhistory.info/factpapers/fp042-1_traders.htm, accessed 20 January 2008.

Kurinsky, Samuel (2005) Jews and Navigation, available at: http://www.hebrewhistory.info/factpapers/fp009_navigation.htm, accessed 26 December 2008.

Lang, Bob (2007) Saving Shipwrecked Sailors, available at: http://www.scc-online.org/ph06nov.pdf, accessed 25 December 2010.

Lapidot, Yehuda (2008) The Illegal Immigration of the Irgun, available at: http://www.etzel.org.il/english/index.html, accessed 3 January 2008.

Markovitzky, Yaacov (2007) Machal, Overseas Volunteers in Israel’s War of Independence, available at: http://www.mahal-idf-volunteers.org/about/Machal.pdf, accessed 28 September 2008.

Lopez, Eleazar (2008) Caribia and Koenigstein, available at: http://www.1y2gm.com/heroes-mitos-y-leyendas-f69/eleazar-lopez-contreras-el-koenigstein-y-el-caribia-t1476.htm, accessed 4 January 2011.

Meier Verner (2004) Harold Solomon Den kongelige MŅnts medaillŅr The Royal Mint medaillŅr, available at: http://www2.gladsaxegymnasium.dk/2/artikler/salomei.htm, accessed 25 December 2010.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs – The State of Israel (2008) Aliyah, available at: http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/2000_2009/2002/10/Aliyah, accessed 30 December 2010.

Montalbano, Michael D. (2010) Guide to the MACHAL, available at: http://findingaids.cjh.org/?pID=1118579, accessed 29 December 2010.

Nash, Peter (2009) Lost and Found – Nazi-era Passport Connects Four Continents, available at:  http://www.calzareth.com/aufbau/LostandFound.pdf, accessed 19 January 2011.

National Gallery of Jamaica (2008), Isaac Mendes Belisario, available at: http://www.jamaicans.com/news/announcements/IsaacMendesBelisario-03062008-36.shtml, accessed 18 July 2009.

National Maritime Museum (2008), The National Maritime Museum Database of Hebrew Ships, available at:  http://www.maritime-museum.org.il/infoships.html, accessed 4 September 2008.

NavSource Online: Amphibious Photo Archive, LST-138, available at: http://www.navsource.org/archives/10/16/160138.htm, accessed 13 Dec 2010.

Ocean Liner Museum (2008), Lloyd Triestino di Navigazione S.p.A, available at: http://www.oceanlinermuseum.co.uk/Lloyd%20Triestino%20history.html, accessed 20 September 2008.

Owlett, Russ (2008) Lighthouses of Israel, available at: http://www.unc.edu/~rowlett/lighthouse/isr.htm, accessed 9 October 2008.

Plaut, Steven (2008) Putting the Oy Back into 'Ahoy', available at:  http://www.jewishpress.com/pageroute.do/36634/Putting_the_Oy_Back_.html,

accessed 22 November 2008.

Raanan, Gidi (2010) Israeli Navy Submarine Dakar, available at: http://www.submarinesonstamps.co.il/openhist.php?ID=91, accessed 30 October 2008.

Raiskin, S.( 2005) Bibliography – Jews of Cyprus (in Hebrew), available at: http://www.daat.ac.il/daat/bibliogr/shlomi/bibel3-2.htm, accessed 21 November 2008.

Revusky, Abraham (2006), Palestine 1945-1946, available at:  http://www.ajcarchives.org/AJC_DATA/Files/1945_1946_8_Palestine.pdf,

accessed 9 October 2008.


Rowlett, Russ (2010) Tel Kudadi, available at:   http://www.unc.edu/~rowlett/lighthouse/isr.htm, accessed 7 December 2010.


Kreppel, Klaus (2008) Nahariya’s Early Years 1934-1949, available at:  http://museum.rutkin.info/en/node/27, accessed 11 October 2008.

Schoville, Keith N. (2003) Galilee Boat, available at:  http://biblicalstudies.info/top10/schoville.htm, accessed 14 December 2010.

Scripophily (2010) Maritime Fruit Carriers Company Limited 1972, available at:  http://www.scripophily.net/marfruitcarc.html, accessed 12 December 2010.

Seed, Patricia (2008) Latitude: The Art and Science of Fifteenth-Century Navigation, available at:  http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~feegi/, accessed 26 April 2009.

Silverstone, Paul H. (2008), Aliyah Bet Voyages, available at: http://www.paulsilverstone.com/immigration/Primary/index.html, accessed 26 September 2008.

Stiftung Hamburg Maritim (2008) Port of Dreams, Ballinstadt, available at: http://www.ballinstadt.de/en/concept.php, accessed 12 December 2008.

Time (1970) Israel's Fugitive Flotilla, January 12, available at:

http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,942140,00.html, accessed 12 October 2008.

Tylon, Leung (2008) Zim Lines, available at: http://members.tripod.com/33880/zim/zim.html, accessed 31 October 2008.

Velikovsky, Immanuel (2007) The Conquest of Ashdod, available at: http://www.varchive.org/tac/ashdod.htm, accessed 1 November 2008.

Victor, Edward (2001) Surinam, available at:   http://www.edwardvictor.com/surinam_main.htm, accessed 18 February 2009.

Warnes, Kathy (2010) Uriah Phillips Levy Fights Prejudice and Buys Monticello, available at: http://www.suite101.com/content/uriah-phillips-levy-fights-prejudice-and-buys-monticello-a229087, accessed 4 January 2011.

Wasserman, Henry (2008), Ships and Sailing, available at: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0018_0_18358.html, accessed 10 May 2009.


Weintraub, Roza (2003) Memoirs of Roza Weintraub - Her Oral History Prepared at Kibbutz Nir David - 26.6.1985, available at: http://www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org/kibart/rozamem.html, accessed 6 March 2010.


Wills, Adam (2006) Ahoy, Mateys ! Thar be Jewish pirates! Jewish Journal September 14, available at:  http://jewishjournal.com/home/preview.php?id=16490, accessed 23 March 2008.

World Factbook (2011) Suriname, available at:  https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ns.html, accessed 20 January 2011.

Zohary, Tamar and Hambright, David K. (2002) Lake Hula – Lake Agmon, available at: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Society_&_Culture/geo/Hula.html, accessed 31 December 2010.

Author not specified

Acre (Akko) (2010), available at: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vie/Acco.html, accessed 11 December 2010.


A letter from an internee in Mauritius Detention camp (2010), available at:  

http://www.chgs.umn.edu/histories/philatelic/index.html, accessed 4 October 2008.

Ashdod (2008), available at: http://www.ctsp.co.il/LBS%20pages/LBS_ashdod.htm, accessed 1 November 2008.

Ashdod (2011), available at:  http://www.jewishagency.org/JewishAgency/English/Jewish+Education/Compelling+Content/Eye+on+Israel/Places+in+Israel/Ashdod.htm, accessed 1 November 2008.

Ashkelon (2008), available at:  http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vie/Ashkelon.html, accessed 5 October 2008.

Betar Marine School (2007), available at:  http://www.betar.org/pubs/history/hist-j.htm, accessed 22 December 2010.

Borris Markenson (2011), available at:  http://www.encyclo.co.uk/define/Boris%20Markenson , accessed 29 January 2011.

Byzantine Expire (2006), available at:  http://bible.tmtm.com/wiki/BYZANTINE_EXPIRE_(Jewish_Encyclopedia), accessed 30 October 2008.

Caesarea (2010), available at: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vie/Caesarea.html, accessed 20 December 2010.

Commodore (rank) (2011), available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commodore_%28rank%29, accessed 23 January 2011.

Cyprus (2008), available at: http://jewish-heritage-europe.eu/country/cyprus/cyprus.htm, accessed 21 November 2008.

Dead Sea, The (2010), available at: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vie/Deadsea.html, accessed 23 December 2010.

de Torres, Luis (2010),  available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luis_de_Torres, accessed  6 March 2010.

Eilat (2011), available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eilat, accessed 17 January 2011.

Elath (2010), available at: http://www.bibleplaces.com/eilat.htm, accessed 11 October 2008.

Feng-Shan Ho (2007), available at:  http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/ho.html, accessed 19 January 2011.

First Settler is Luis de Torres, The (2008), available at: http://www.borisamericanjews.org/panel1.htm, accessed 20 January 2008.

Gaspar da Gamma (2007), available at:   http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/GaspardaGama.html, accessed 29 January 2011.

Gaza (2010), available at:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaza, accessed 30 December 2010.

The Generali Group (2006), available at:  http://www.generali.com/generalicom/media/show?128282, accessed 20 September 2008.

Glil Yam (2010), available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glil_Yam, accessed 29 December 2010.

Haifa (2010), available at: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vie/viehaifa.html, accessed 31 December 2010.

Herzliya (2010), available at: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vie/Herzliya.html, accessed 31 December 2010.

Hull Classification Symbol (2010), available at:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hull_classification_symbol#United_States_Navy, accessed 24 January 2011.

Introduction to Marine Archaeology in Israel (2008), available at: http://www.antiquities.org.il/article_Item_eng.asp?sec_id=27&subj_id=232, accessed 6 October 2008.

Israel's Fugitive Flotilla (1970), available at:   http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,942140,00.html, 12 January, accessed 20 December 2010.

Israel Ports and Railways Authority (2011), available at:   http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/1990_1999/1998/6/Israel+Ports+and+Railways+Authority.htm, accessed 2 January 2011.

Israel Scandinavian Maritime Agency Ltd. (2010), available at:  http://www.israscan.co.il/israel.html, accessed 2 January 2011.

Israel Shipyards (2010), available at:: http://www.israel-shipyards.com/about.asp, accessed 3 January 2011.

Jacques Bingen (2010), available at:   ,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques_Bingen, accessed 19 December 2010.

Jewish Sites in Shanghai (2011), available at: http://www.chinafacttours.com/shanghai/attractions/jewish-sites-in-shanghai.html, accessed 19 January 2011.

Joseph Osmond Barnard 1816-1865 (2011), available at: http://www.stampsmauritius.com/Barnard.htm, accessed 8 January 2011.

Kiryat Yam (2011), available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kiryat_Yam , accessed 3 January 2011.

Kfar Galim (2010), available at: http://kfar-galim.co.il/cfar/cfar_english.html, accessed 3 January 2011.

Major Dates in the History of the Compagnie Generale Transatlantique (2010), available at: http://www.frenchlines.com/histoire/histoire_cgt_dates_en.php, accessed 22 December 2010.

Mano Maritime Ltd. (2011), available at: http://www.mano.co.il/profile/eng/sc_history/History.html, accessed 5 January 2011.

Mauritius "Post Office", Joseph Osmond Barnard (2011), available at:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue_Penny, accessed 28 September 2008.

Michael Kolganov (2011), available at:  http://www.worldlingo.com/ma/enwiki/en/Michael_Kolganov, accessed 4 January 2011.

Missing Submarine Located (2008), available at: http://www.marinetalk.com/articles-marine-companies/art/Missing-Submarine-Located-PHO001110545N.html, accessed 10 January 2011.

Nahariya (2008), available at: http://wapedia.mobi/en/nahariya, accessed 11 October 2008.

Navy Customs and Traditions (2011), available at: http://www.officersguide.org/9.html, accessed 23 January 2011.

Netanya (2011), available at: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vie/Netanya.html, accessed 11 January 2011.

Norfolk Island’s Fascinating History (2011), available at:  http://www.discovernorfolkisland.com/norfolk/history.html, accessed 20 June 2009.

Oesterreicher, Tobias Von (2011), available at:  http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0015_0_15024.html,  accessed 29 January 2011.

Rescue of Danish Jews, The (2011), available at: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/denmap.html , accessed 25 December 2010.


Roman Assemblages (2011), available at: http://www.antiquities.org.il/article_Item_eng.asp?sec_id=13&subj_id=127, accessed 3 January 2011.


Rosh Hanikra (2011), available at:  http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vie/Hanikra.html, accessed 18 January 2011.


Sdot Yam (2008), available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sdot_Yam, accessed 18 January 2008.

Sea of Galilee (2011), available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sea_of_Galilee, accessed 3 January 2011

Siegfried Popper (2011), available at: http://www.websters-online-dictionary.org/definitions/Siegfried+Popper?cx=partner-pub-0939450753529744%3Av0qd01-tdlq&cof=FORID%3A9&ie=UTF-8&q=Siegfried+Popper&sa=Search#1452, accessed 29 January 2011.

Tiberias (2011), available at: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vie/Tiberias.html, accessed 23 January 2011.

Timeline (2008), available at:  

http://www.jewishagency.org/JewishAgency/English/Jewish+Education/Compelling+Content/Jewish+History/Zionist+Institutions/JAFI+Timeline/The+Jewish+Agency+for+Israel+Timeline+8.htm, accessed 9 October 2008.


USS General M. C. Meigs (AP-116), 1944-1972. Later USNS General M. C. Meigs (T-AP-116) (2011), available at: http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-g/ap116.htm, accessed 19 January 2011.


Why did a Jewish scientist create the Rules for the Astrolabe? (2006), available at: http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~feegi/calend2.html, accessed 26 April 2009.

Youth Aliyah (2011), available at: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Immigration/youth_aliyah.html, accessed 24 January 2011.